Menstrual Cycle Basics

If you’re anything like us, your memories of sex ed probably revolve around cringing, as your science teacher put a condom on a banana, rather than actually understanding the ins and outs of the amazing process that women go through every month. You aren’t alone if your only knowledge of the menstrual cycle is that it exists, involves blood, and can cause PMS. 

If you wish that a text message could let you know that you weren’t pregnant, rather than a host of bodily changes, you aren’t alone either. This process isn’t openly discussed and we are certainly not taught to value it.  But your cycle is actually really important (and awesome).  Moreover, knowing how it works is a crucial piece to understanding your overall health. 

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists even declare the menstrual cycle as a vital sign (meaning its right up there with your heart rate and blood pressure). By having a “pulse” on how your reproductive system is functioning, you can gain valuable insights on any issues that may be affecting you as well as how to further optimise anything that could be working better. This is also super empowering, as it puts you in the driver’s seat to take charge of your own health and wellbeing. 

Here comes the science:

A normal menstrual cycle is between 21-35 days. It includes two main phases, the follicular phase (first half) and the luteal phase (second half), as well as two important events, which are menstruation (when you bleed) and ovulation (when your egg is released). Compared to some other bodily processes, the menstrual cycle is actually pretty complex, but understanding the following changes will be instrumental in understanding what the heck is going on in your body. So stick with us!

Follicular Phase: Day 1-14(ish)

Day 1 of your cycle is Day 1 of your period. Your period then makes up the first five or so days of the follicular phase. First, a hormone called GnRH in your hypothalamus is released, and it kicks off the cascade of activities that make up your menstrual cycle. Its first order of business is catalysing follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland, to travel through your bloodstream to your ovary and stimulates follicles to grow. One follicle gets bigger and bigger, while the others die out, kind of like Beyonce leaving behind Destiny’s Child for a solo career. As the follicle grows it produces oestrogen, which is the star of this phase.  At a certain point, oestrogen triggers your brain to produce another hormone, called luteinizing hormone (LH). LH is basically like the friend that is always trying to get the party started and catalyzes the main event - ovulation, which allows conception to occur. This phase is kind of like putting together all of the ingredients to bake a cake; it’s prepped for putting it in the oven so it can actually happen (ovulation).

Ovulation: Day 14(ish)

Ovulation is when your egg is released, which marks the end of your follicular phase and the start of your luteal phase. This egg fleeing the coop down the fallopian tube and into the uterus makes it possible for women to conceive. Specifically, the six days around ovulation are the days when women are fertile, and understanding this window is crucial to understanding your fertility. However, understanding if and when you are ovulating is one of the biggest indicators for your overall health too 

Luteal Phase: Day 14-28(ish)

Once you ovulate, you then enter the luteal phase. As your egg rides off into the sunset, it leaves behind something called the Corpus Luteum, or CL. The CL produces progesterone which takes centre stage during this time. Progesterone is a crucial hormone for both keeping a pregnancy and keeping your chill . Once the progesterone-pumping CL disintegrates, this phase ends*. (*Bonus: Since the CL can only live for about 10-16 days, once you know when you ovulate, you can be fairly sure about when your period will arrive). Your period begins, bringing you back to the start of your follicular phase, and the whole thing starts again. 

If any of these aspects are out of sync  - eg. if you are not ovulating, missing periods, having too long or too short of a phase, or having hormones out of balance with each other - your body is telling you something.  Our tests are pretty great, but they are most effective when you are able to put the results into context with your own understanding of your flow.

If you’re ready to start tracking your fertility, or have any questions about your overall female health, we’d love to help you out. Why not join our waitlist and we’ll let you know when we’re live so we can help guide you along the fertility path.